History of Ice Skating
People probably skated on ice in the Scandinavian countries before typically the Christian era. The particular first skates are thought to have recently been sharp splinters of bones of animal fitted to the bottoms regarding boots to ease travel over glaciers. Some drawings and references in materials to ice roller skating date from the Center Ages. The contemporary word skate is derived from typically the Dutch word schaats, meaning "leg bone" or "shank bone fragments. "
Skating being a sport developed within the lakes of Scotland and the waterways from the Netherlands. In the 13th plus 14th centuries wood was substituted regarding bone in skate blades, and in 1572 the first flat iron skates were made. The iron cutting blades reduced the rubbing of forward action, and the resistance to be able to lateral slipping empowered skaters to enhance themselves ahead. Instructional books were published, and the first skate club was created in Edinburgh in 1742. The metal-bladed skates were shortly introduced in North America by Scottish immigrants.
Ice skating did not develop as a possible organized competitive activity until the introduction of steel skate blades permanently linked to leather footwear. The earlier iron blades dulled quickly, and street shoes, to which they were tied together with straps, lacked rearfoot support. Using the metal skates, a U. S. ballet ballerina named Jackson Haines created a unrestricted skating technique that will incorporated waltzlike motions. Ice speed roller skating, which had produced in the Netherlands inside the 17th hundred years, was given a increase by the improvements in skate construction. Figure skating started to be an Olympic event in 1908. Speed skating for men was part associated with the 1924 Olympics, but it had been not until 1960 that women's velocity skating was positioned on the Olympic agenda.
Skate Design and style
The figure-skate blade differs from the ice-hockey or speed-skate blade because it is slightly curvy, or "hollow surface. " The empty, which runs the length of the blade, generates two edges, which come in contact with the ice. The particular forward part of the blade, the particular toe-rake, is saw-toothed and is utilized for jumps and rotates on the toes. The figure-skate shoes, which are traditionally dark-colored for men and white for females, are manufactured of sturdy leather-based and have stiffening supports at typically the heel and beneath the arch. They are tightly laced up over the ankle to aid prevent the particular foot from going from one part or the other. Speed skates have got a considerably longer knife and a individual, thin edge. The particular toe of typically the blade is smooth and turned upward. The boot is made of light leather than the particular figure-skate boot in addition to is lower, coming just to the particular top of the ankles. Beginning with typically the 1996? 97 season of international competitors an innovation the clap skate manufactured its appearance in speed skating. Within this skate, the knife is not connected to the rear associated with boot but is spring-hinged at the front end. This particular makes a clapping noise when useful for skating, hence the particular name. Clap skates require a change in technique for typically the speed skater, who now must drive off with the entrance of the feet rather than the particular heel. The main advantage of these skates is usually that the skater maintains exposure to typically the ice longer, creating faster times. When of the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan, clap skates were the particular norm, and world records tumbled, at times several times within a race.
Competitive Ice Skating
Figure Skating. Figure skating is mainly a sport of amateurs. Competitions usually are held for mens and women's public, pairs, and snow dancing. For many years the singles competition were judged upon compulsory figures in addition to two free ice skating programs. The compulsory-figures category required every skater to perform reps of 3 figures drawn from the possible 41 designs, which were judged according to the skater's precision, equilibrium, control, and demeaner in retracing typically the figure. In 1990 the International Roller skating Union eliminated the particular compulsory figures coming from singles competition. The two men and women skaters must execute a shorter technical program with specific required moves, in addition to a longer, even more creative free skate. The skaters are usually judged on their particular capability to perform gets, spins, spirals, plus to skate the program coordinated along with music. There has been a pattern toward more athleticism in free-skating activities, adding more complex and daring gets.
Pairs competitions are similar to singles, in that will they are judged about shorter technical plus longer free-skating shows. In pairs skating, the same jumps, rotates, and twirls because in the singles events are employed, alongside with lifts and partner-assisted jumps. The particular partners must stay in unison as these people perform their workouts. Ice dancing differs from pairs roller skating in this lifts are prohibited and certain movements required. Glaciers dancers must execute two compulsory dances and an original dance, all in order to predetermined music or rhythms. The longer free dance utilizes more interpretive steps, as well because creative moves.
Ice figure skating had been popularized by Sonja Henie, who received numerous amateur competitions before turning specialist in 1936. Dick Button, Peggy Fleming, and Dorothy Hamill also toured together with ice revues following illustrious amateur careers. The normal ice display is similar to a circus on ice skates and features halloween costumes, trick skating, and gags to captivate the audience rather compared to to display correct figure-skating expertise.
Velocity Skating. The long, narrow blades from the modern speed skate permit skaters to keep speeds of about 48 km/h (30 mph). Formal tournaments are often held outside the house on large rinks. The skaters competition two at the time, competing contrary to the clock. Men who else participate in major international meets may possibly enter five activities: 500 m (1, 640 ft), just one, 000 m (3, 280 ft), one, 500 m (4, 920 ft), 5, 000 m (16, 400 ft), or perhaps 10, 000 meters (32, 800 ft). Women also may compete over five programs: 500 m, 1, 000 m, 1, 500 m, three or more, 000 m (9, 840 ft), in addition to 5, 000 mirielle. Men's speed skating, as traditionally, remains dominated by Americans, Russians, Norwegians, plus the Dutch. In women's speed ice skating, American, German, Dutch, and Japanese ladies have dominated recently.
Short track velocity skating takes place on the small rink with very restricted curves. The boarders compete against each other in groups of four, instead of against the time clock, with heats to be able to eliminate slower skaters. Men and ladies both compete in 500 m and 1, 000 mirielle; the women's relay are at 3, 500 m, while the men's relay is usually 5, 000 m. The skaters use helmets, gloves, and knee and elbow pads to stop damage, and the skates are taller compared to regular speed skates, to prevent the boot from touching the ice when the racer leans greatly in the figure. Short track velocity skating was very first included in the Winter Olympics inside the 1992 Online games at Albertville.
Adam M. Greiff
Bibliography: Bezic, S., in addition to Hayes, D., The Passion to Skate (1996); Holum, M., The Complete Handbook of Speed Ice skating (1983); House, M. G., Ice Ice skating Fundamentals, 2d impotence. (1996); Malone, J., Encyclopedia of Determine Skating (1998); Vehicle Wert, W. Farrenheit., Introduced of Ice Skating (1997); Vandervell, H. E., A System of Determine Skating (1993).